Adolescent Health Survey
The Adolescent Health Survey (AHS) is administered by the McCreary Centre Society. The society uses this survey to collect information from BC public school students in grades 7 to 12 on a wide range of health topics. It was most recently conducted in 2013, and previous cycles were conducted in 1992, 1998, 2003, and 2008. Many of the same questions are repeated in each survey cycle in order to track health trends over time. The AHS is administered to regular public schools1 and not does not include schools on reserves.2
This report presents survey data from 2003, 2008, and 2013 to examine 19 indicators in four of the health dimensions explored. For some indicators survey data were obtained from a survey question that was introduced in 2008 or 2013; therefore, earlier data do not exist. For several indicators, data are reported by sex because survey respondents were asked whether they were male or female (this may or may not match their gender identity). Since the survey is anonymous, geographic analyses of data by health authority and health service delivery area are based on the location of the school where the survey was administered.
BC Early Hearing Surveillance Tool Database
The BC Provincial Health Services Authority (PHSA) collects data on the results of the BC Early Hearing Surveillance Tool (BEST). The BEST is a secure, web-based tool used for the operation, evaluation, and optimization of the provincial hearing screening and testing program. It provides follow-up flags and communications to care providers that are used to ensure that all children have access to timely services.3,4
This report presents these data to examine hearing screening and referrals. Geographic analyses by health authority and health service delivery area are based on the location where the service was delivered.
BC Ministry of Children & Family Development Corporate Data Warehouse
The BC Ministry of Children and Family Development (MCFD) administers a corporate database to support their government responsibilities. This includes data about children, youth, and families in BC.
This report presents MCFD corporate data to examine the rates of abused and/or neglected children and youth, children and youth in care, and youth in the justice system. Geographic analyses by health authority and health service delivery area are based on the location of the MCFD office that received the initial report for abuse or neglect. Data include Aboriginal children living on reserve.
BC Ministry of Education Corporate Data Warehouse
The BC Ministry of Education (MEd) administers a corporate database to support their government responsibilities. This includes data about children and youth in public and provincially funded independent schools in BC (including any located on-reserve) derived from several sources. The Foundation Skills Assessment is an annual province-wide assessment of BC students in grades 4 and 7 that assesses academic skills in reading comprehension, writing, and numeracy.5 Additionally, provincial examinations are annual province-wide assessments of English (Grade 10 and 12 students) and Math (Grade 10 students).6 MEd also monitors high school completion, including those with a BC Adult Graduation Diploma, and continuing education services through school districts.
This report presents MEd corporate data about high school completion, as well as results from the Foundation Skills Assessment, and English and Math provincial exam results. Geographic analyses by health authority and health service delivery area are based on the location of the school.
BC Perinatal Data Registry
The BC Perinatal Data Registry is owned and administered by Perinatal Services BC, which is part of the BC Provincial Health Services Authority. This database includes health data for mothers and babies from obstetrical and neonatal medical records in BC, including hospital births and registered midwife-attended home births.7
BC Perinatal Data Registry data are presented in this report to examine smoking during pregnancy. Geographic analyses of data by health authority and health service delivery area are based on the residence of the mother.
BC Vital Statistics
One of the responsibilities of the BC Vital Statistics Agency (VSA) is administration of Vital Statistics data, such as births, deaths, and marriages in BC. The VSA uses the World Health Organization’s International Statistical Classification of Diseases codes, Version 10 (ICD-10) to classify related health data.
In this report the BC Vital Statistics data were used to determine the number of births in BC, and to examine low birth weights, teenage mothers, infant mortality, and youth suicide. Geographic analyses of data by health authority and health service delivery area are based on the residence of the person.
Chronic Disease Registry
The BC Ministry of Health collects information for people living with a number of chronic diseases, within the Chronic Disease Registry. Data include the person’s sex, age, residence, date of birth and/or death, as well as disease diagnosis date(s), and source of diagnosis.8
In this report, the Chronic Disease Registry data are used to examine asthma among children and youth. Geographic analyses of data by health authority and health service delivery area are based on the residence of the patient.
Discharge Abstract Database
The Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) is housed at the Ministry of Health and contains detailed patient information, including ICD-10 diagnostic codes that describe the causes and types of injury leading to hospitalization. The DAD only reflects data for those persons who were admitted to hospital for an overnight stay that did not result in death, and the record ends when the patient is discharged from hospital. Therefore, hospitalization is used as a proxy indicator for a serious injury. The DAD does not include emergency room data or fatalities. If the patient is transferred to a new facility, a new record is created at that facility. DAD is a live database, meaning data may change over time due to reporting corrections, adjustments, and reconciliation of data.
DAD data are used in this report to look at serious injuries among children and youth. In this report, to avoid multiple counts of the same injury, when a patient was re-admitted or transferred to another hospital only the first admission was counted. Geographic analyses of data by health authority and health service delivery area are based on the residence of the child or youth.
Early Development Instrument
The Early Development Instrument (EDI) is a 104-question survey measuring five domains, or core ideas, of early child development that are known to be predictors of adult health, education, and social outcomes. The EDI is administered by the Human Early Learning Partnership, which is an interdisciplinary research network based out of the University of British Columbia’s School of Population and Public Health.9 All schools in BC are invited to participate in the EDI, including public, independent, and on-reserve schools.
EDI data presented in this report are used to examine the percentage of children who are vulnerable on a selection of EDI domains. Geographic analyses of data by health authority and health service delivery area are based on the residence of the child.
Sexually Transmitted Infection Information System
The Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Information System is administered by the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC). It contains records for reportable STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, infectious syphilis) from care providers and public health clinics across BC.
Data on the rate of chlamydia among youth were taken from the STI Information System for this report. Geographic analyses of data by health authority and health service delivery area are based on the residence of the youth.
Statistics Canada collects and houses a wide variety of information about Canadians in its CANSIM database. These data are derived from a number of surveys and sources, including three presented in this report: the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), the Canadian Census/National Household Survey, and the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).
In this report, Statistics Canada data are presented to examine several indicators. For example, CCHS data was used to examine binge drinking among women of reproductive age, breastfeeding, and youth reports of life satisfaction; and SLID survey data are presented to examine core housing need. Geographic analyses of data by health authority and health service delivery area are based on the residence of the survey respondent or their household.
Canadian Community Health Survey
Through the CCHS, Statistics Canada collects health data by region (in BC these are health authorities and health service delivery areas). Data collected include information about health status, health care utilization, and socio-economic status and other determinants of health. Prior to 2007, the survey was conducted every two years. Since 2007, the survey has been conducted annually, but is reported in combined two-year aggregate periods. This survey does not include people living on reserves or other Aboriginal settlements, full-time members of the Canadian forces, and institutionalized people.10
Canadian Census/National Household Survey
The Canadian Census is conducted every five years and it gathers demographic, social, and economic information from the entire Canadian population, including Canadian citizens (by birth and by naturalization), landed immigrants and non-permanent residents as well as their families living with them in Canada, and those Canadian citizens and landed immigrants who are temporarily outside the country on Census Day. It does not include foreign residents temporarily visiting or representing a foreign government.11
In addition to the basic census, some individuals are randomly selected and required to complete a longer, more detailed version of the census—the “long-form” census. The long-form census was replaced by a voluntary National Household Survey (NHS) in 2011, but it was reinstated in 2016. The NHS included people who usually live in Canada, including those who live on reserves or other Aboriginal settlements, permanent residents, non-permanent residents such as refugee claimants, those who have work or study permits, and some others. It did not include foreign residents temporarily visiting or representing a foreign government, people living in hospitals, nursing homes, and penitentiaries, and others (for a complete list of people excluded from the NHS please see Statistic’s Canada’s National Household Survey webpage12).
Survey of Labour & Income Dynamics
Statistics Canada administered the SLID between 1998 and 2011 to collect additional information about Canadians’ economic well-being. The SLID includes data about the incomes of Canadian families, households, and individuals.13 The SLID was discontinued in 2011.
- McCreary Centre Society. Methodology: 2013 BC Adolescent Health Survey. Vancouver, BC: McCreary Centre Society; 2014 Jan [cited 2016 May 31]. Available from: http://www.mcs.bc.ca/pdf/AHSV_methodology.pdf.
- Ho, K. Personal communication. BC Ministry of Education; 2016 Aug 11.
- Human Early Learning Partnership. Early childhood screening research and evaluation [Internet]. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia; [cited 2016 Jun 10]. Available from: http://earlylearning.ubc.ca/screening/.
- Provincial Health Services Authority. BC Early Hearing Program – privacy [Internet]. Vancouver, BC: Provincial Health Services Authority; [cited 2016 Jun 10]. Available from: http://www.phsa.ca/our-services/programs-services/bc-early-hearing-prog….
- BC Ministry of Education. Foundation skills assessment (FSA) [Internet]. Victoria, BC: BC Ministry of Education; [cited 2016 Jul 08]. Available from: https://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/assessment/fsa/.
- BC Ministry of Education. Glossary of terms [Internet]. Victoria, BC: BC Ministry of Education; [cited 2016 Aug 3]. Available from: http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/reporting/glossary.php.
- Perinatal Services BC. Perinatal data registry [Internet]. Vancouver, BC: Perinatal Services BC; [cited 2016 May 20]. Available from: http://www.perinatalservicesbc.ca/health-professionals/data-surveillanc….
- BC Ministry of Health. Chronic disease registry – data dictionary. Victoria, BC: BC Ministry of Health; 2015 Mar 27 [cited 2016 May 20]. Available from: www.gov.bc.ca/health/forms/5452datadictionary.pdf.
- Human Early Learning Partnership. Early development instrument [Internet]. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia; [cited 2016 Jun 3]. Available from: http://earlylearning.ubc.ca/edi/.
- Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) [Internet]. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada; [modified 2007 Oct 24; cited 2016 May 31]. Available from: http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&Id=3359.
- Statistics Canada. Census of population [Internet]. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada; [modified 2016 Apr 28; cited 2016 Aug 3]. Available from: http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=3901.
- Statistics Canada. National Household Survey (NHS) [Internet]. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada; [modified 2011 Oct 5; cited 2016 Aug 3]. Available from: http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=5178.
- Statistics Canada. Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) – 2011 survey overview [Internet]. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada; [modified 2015 Nov 27; cited 2016 May 31]. Available from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75f0011x/75f0011x2013001-eng.htm.